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Commercial printing morphs annually in the 21st century. The following printing firsts, however, irrevocably changed the global printing industry.
• China, 11th century: Pi Sheng creates the first movable type process by molding letters out of clay.
• Korea, 13th century: First movable metal type process is developed.
• Mainz, Germany, 1455: Johannes Gutenburg introduces movable type in Europe, and reproduces the Bible.
• Philadelphia, 1728: Benjamin Franklin launches “The Pennsylvania Gazette.”
• Bohemia, 1796: Alois Senefelder invents the lithographic process.
• London, 1814: “The Times” becomes the first newspaper to utilize Friedrich Koenig and Andreas Bauer’s steam-powered press, which was invented in England in 1812.
• New York City, 1847: Richard M. Hoe patents the rotary press.
• Pittsburgh, 1856: William Bullock introduces the first web-fed press.
• Kiel, Germany, 1961: Dr. Rudolph Hell develops the Helio-Klischograph, used for electromechanical engraving with the rotogravure process.
• United States, 1976: IBM introduces the first laser printer intended for commercial use, the IBM 3800.
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